Affordable Dish Satellite Networks for Best Viewership

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For the global TV viewers, dish satellite network has changes and even say transformed the manner in which the quality and clarity of the entertainment has been delivered to the audience across the world. Global satellite internet use the most modern technology of communication for offering best and DVD quality pictures for a better and more enhanced crystal clear high definition experience. Being one of the most popular mechanisms to offer world class TV viewing to viewers.

A number of reasons are therefore stated to endorse the importance of the dish network. The primary reason that emphasizes the need of global satellite network is the availability of the network in very affordable and cost effective price tags. Even these equipments and mechanism is available in the feasible price, the quality and compatibility of the services are never compromised in any manner.

The installation process of dish satellite TV is highly straight forward and very easy to be executed. The entire process however requires cautious method of installation and strategic setup implementation to avoid last minute inconvenience. The quality of the service reception in the dish satellite network is another vital factor that makes it highly commendable and popular. The cost structure of this mechanism puts the best affordability factor on the services. Global satellite network experts are even very keen to keep the prices more down and mitigated for the more affordable TV viewership.

Offering new technologies for the esteemed mode of telecommunication is precisely the best thing that is developing a new craze for the viewership needs. Exceptional visual quality and high definition video quality is now creating a new phenomenon for audience thus no one now can escape the inevitability of the inception of new range of dish satellite networks. The cost of the dish network cost is very less than the tradition cable networks and the process can even push audience with a proficiency to track the fee spend on these subscription fee.

While going through the installation of the global satellite network, always try to take the services of some expert installers to get the best installation of the equipments for the best viewership ever.

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Surviving the Threat – How TV Learned to Love the Internet

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When it comes to “old”   media ,  TV  seems to be the one form of traditional media that has learned how to utilize the net to its advantage. The internet is still a content threat, but the TV world, unlike the worlds of music, film and publishing seems to have more quickly understood the pitfalls and opportunities. Instead of pulling up the drawbridge and preparing for battle, TV joined in and utilized the internet.

Companies that make their living selling content are reeling. Newspapers have been closing at a record rate. The music business is reeling like never before. ITunes has helped reset the playing field, but it’s nothing like it was before. Book publishing has been hit, particularly the brick and mortar bookstores and for the film industry it could just be a matter of time, before the ability to download free content (legal or otherwise) will make a true dent in their profits.

When it comes to “old”  media ,  TV  seems to be the one form of traditional media that has learned how to utilize the net to its advantage. Advertising took a huge hit last year, but the economy was also in the throws of the worst recession since the (strangely named) Great Depression. Just about everyone took a huge hit last year, not just TV ad revenues. But apart from basic economic ebbs and flows, TV seems to be the one form of media that has not only been able to weather the internet threat, but to utilize it.

To quote a recent article in The Economist: “In the final quarter of 2009 the average American spent almost 37 hours a week watching television. Earlier this year 116 million of them saw the Super Bowl-a record for a single program. Far from being cowed by the new  media ,  TV  is colonizing it.” The article goes on to explain how shows like “American Idol” and “Britain’s Got Talent” utilize the net to their advantage. Watchers are constantly messaging one another about such shows on email IM, Facebook or Twitter.

Plus, TV is a reactive media. It doesn’t require much from the viewer. You turn it on, put on the channel you want and there you are. Although many programs are available online, most viewers are not going to do the work it takes to find their programs through nontraditional outlets. The internet is still a content threat, but the TV world, unlike the worlds of music and publishing seems to have more quickly understood the possible pitfalls and opportunities. Instead of pulling up the drawbridge and preparing for battle, TV joined in creating sites such as Hulu a joint venture of ABC, Fox and NBC; an unlikely partnership, but a smart one.

Other content providers are beginning to understand that the way to fight the internet is not to fight it at all, but to blend with it and make it an extension of their brand and their information outlets, but the TV world is way ahead of the game

Copyright © Anthony Mora 2010

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Blown Film Extrusion Introduction

Blown Film Extrusion Introduction
Blown film extrusion is a technology that is the most common method to make plastic films, especially for the packaging industry. The process involves extruding a tube of molten polymer through a die and inflating to several times its initial diameter to form a thin film bubble. This bubble is then collapsed and used as a lay-flat film or can be made into bags. Usually polyethylene is used with this process, and other materials can be used as blends with these polymers. A diagram of a polyethylene chain is shown in Figure 1 to the right.
Background Theory on Polymers

In the cooling step of blown film extrusion, the amorphous, transparent melt crystallizes to form a translucent, hazy, or opaque film. The point where opacity begins in the bubble is known as the frost line. 
Fig 1: Model of polytheylene chain frompolyethylene Wikipedia article.The frost line height is controlled by several parameters: the air flow, film speed, and temperature difference between the film and the surroundings. Properties of the film, such as tensile strength, flexural strength, toughness, and optical properties, drastically change depending on the orientation of the molecules. As the transverse or hoop direction properties increase, the machine or longitudinal direction properties decrease. For instance, if all the molecules were aligned in the machine direction, it would be easy to tear the film in that direction, and very difficult in the transverse direction.

The Film Blowing machine Process

Fig 2: Schematic of set-up from User:J.Chiang.

Typically, blown film extrusion is carried out vertically upwards, however horizontal and downward extrusion processes are now becoming more common. Figure 2 shows a schematic of the set-up for blown film extrusion. This procedure consists of four main steps: The polymer material starts in a pellet form, which are successively compacted and melted to form a continuous, viscous liquid. This molten plastic is then forced, or extruded, through an annular die. Air is injected through a hole in the center of the die, and the pressure causes the extruded melt to expand into a bubble. The air entering the bubble replaces air leaving it, so that even and constant pressure is maintained to ensure uniform thickness of the film. The bubble is pulled continually upwards from the die and a cooling ring blows air onto the film. The film can also be cooled from the inside using internal bubble cooling. This reduces the temperature inside the bubble, while maintaining the bubble diameter. After solidification at the frost line, the film moves into a set of nip rollers which collapse the bubble and flatten it into two flat film layers. The puller rolls pull the film onto windup rollers. The film passes through idler rolls during this process to ensure that there is uniform tension in the film. Between the nip rollers and the windup rollers, the film may pass through a treatment centre, depending on the application. During this stage, the film may be slit to form one or two films, or surface treated. Advantages Blown film generally has a better balance of mechanical properties than cast or extruded films because it is drawn in both the transverse and machine directions. Mechanical properties of the thin film include tensile and flexural strength, and toughness. The nearly uniform properties in both directions allow for maximum toughness in the film.
Blown film extrusion can be used to make one large film, two smaller ones, or tubes that can be made into bags. Also, one die can make many different widths and sizes without significant trimming. This high level of flexibility in the process leads to less scrap material and higher productivity. Blown films also require lower melting temperatures than cast extrusion. Measured at the die opening, the temperature of cast film is about 220 C, where as the temperature of blown film is about 135 C. Furthermore, the cost of the equipment is approximately 50% of a cast line.

Blown Film Extrusion Disadvantages Blown film has a less effective cooling process than flat film. Flat film cooling is done by means of chill rolls or water, which have significantly higher specific heat capacities than the air that is used in the blown film cooling process. The higher specific heat capacity allows the substance to absorb more heat with less change in the substance temperature. Compared to cast film, blown film has a more complicated and less accurate method to control film thickness; cast film has a thickness variation of 1 to 2% versus the 3 to 4% for blown film. The resins used for casting typically have a lower melt flow index, which is the amount of polymer that can be forced through a standard die in 10 minutes according to a standard procedure. The melt flow index for cast film is about 5.0 g/10 min where as for blown film it is about 1.0 g/10 min. Consequently, the production rates for cast film are higher: cast film lines can reach production rates of up to 300m/min where as blown film lines are usually less than half this value. And finally, cast film has better optical properties, including transparency, haze, and gloss.

Common Problems Air entrapment between film layers and rollers – this may cause film scratching or wrinkling, or processing problems when winding up the film due to reduced friction. Possible solutions to this is using a vacuum to remove entrapped air or by using winding rolls with a diamond shaped groove in the rubber cover to increase surface area and decrease amount of entrapped air in the film. Large output fluctuations from the die – this causes thickness variations, and can be prevented by keeping the extruder clean and by using more consistently shaped pellets in the extruder. Melt fractures – these appear as roughness or wavy lines on the film surface, and can be eliminated by lowering the viscosity of the polymer melt. This can be done by increasing the melting temperature or by adding an internal lubricant to the material composition. Thickness variations in the film – this can be avoided by centering the die in the extrusion line before every run, adjusting the air speed of the cooling system, or by using heated die lips. Die lines on the surface of the film – this defect reduces the aesthetic appeal of the film, reduces optical properties, and weakens mechanical properties such as tear strength. This can usually be avoided by routinely cleaning the inner surfaces of the die and by refinishing scratched or roughened flow surfaces. Gels – these defects are small, hard globules encapsulated in the film or stuck on the film surface and reduce the aesthetic appeal of the film and cause stress concentration points which may result in premature failure. These are caused by overheating to the point of polymer degradation in the die, and can therefore be avoided by cleaning the inner surfaces of the die on a regular basis. Optimization of the Process Coextrusion One way to improve the line efficiency of blown film extrusion is to implement coextrusion. This is the process of extruding two or more materials simultaneously through a single die. The orifices in the die are arranged such that the layers merge together before cooling. This process saves time because it extrudes two or more layers at the same time, and it provides a method with fewer steps to produce multilayer films. The production rate for a coextruded multilayer film of three layers is about 65m/min, and the production rate for a single layer of blown film is about 130m/min. Thus, in order to produce 10 000m of a three layer multilayer film, it would take almost 4 hours using a single layer blown film process, and only 2 and a half hours using the coextrusion process. Furthermore, the film produced from the single layer process would require an extra step to glue the layers together using some sort of adhesive. Coextrusion is the least expensive means of producing layered films and the coextrusion system is capable of quick changeovers to minimize production line down time.

Minimizing the Melt Temperature
The efficiency of blown film extrusion can be improved by minimizing the temperature of the polymer melt. Reduction of the melt temperature causes the melt to require less heating in the extruder. Normal extrusion conditions have a melting temperature at about 190 C despite the fact that the temperature of the melt only needs to be about 135 C. However, it is not always practical to decrease the melting temperature by that much. By decreasing the melt temperature 2 to 20 C, the motor load can be decreased by about 1 to 10%. Furthermore, reduction of the melt temperature causes less need for cooling, so there is a reduced use of the cooling system. Moreover, removing heat from the bubble is usually the rate-limiting factor in this extrusion process, so by having less heat in the polymer to remove, the rate of the process can be increased, thus yielding higher productivity. A way to maintain the melt temperature at a minimum is to choose an extruder that is matched to the specific processing conditions, such as the material of the melt, pressure, and throughput.

Heated Extrusion Die Lips
Typically, solutions to melt fractures involve decreasing the output or increasing the melt temperature to decrease the shear stress in the extruder. Both of these methods are not ideal because they both reduce the efficiency of the blown film line. Heated extrusion die lips can solve this problem. This targeted heating method allows for film extruders to be run at higher production rates with narrower die gaps while eliminating melt fractures. Direct heat is applied to the surface of the polymer melt as it exits the die so that viscosity is reduced. Therefore, melt fractures, which are caused when trying to extrude too much of the polymer at one time, will no longer act as a limiting factor to increasing the production rate. Furthermore, heated die lips use less energy than increasing the melting temperature because only the surface of the melt is heated and not the bulk of the liquid. Another benefit of using heated die lips is that thickness variations can be controlled by adding heat to certain areas along the die circumference to make the film at that position thinner. This would ensure that no excess material is used.
Determine how much energy each of these processes can save per given volume of material. 

Above article from www.appropedia.org

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Verizon FiOS TV Rocks the House

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Verizon FiOS TV (fiber-optic television) is the fastest and largest growing network in the United States! And it keeps spreading becoming even more popular as people stand in the showrooms to find out just how well FiOS stands up against regular television.

People are discovering how clear and close to life Verizon FiOS TV really is. Once you see it for yourself, you will never want to go back to your old TV service providers. The perfectly clear picture is not the only great thing about Verizon FiOS; you get over 200 all digital channels and a very unique home media DVR that offers multi room functions.

The one DVR can record a movie while the family watches TV, then you can set it up at a later date to play the movie in any room in the house. This will save you a lot of money because you only have to have one DVR. You will be able to watch 3 different recorded shows on three different TV sets at once. The plus to having the DVR is that you can record 80 hours of SD programming and 20 hours of High Definition programming. You can also choose the HD Receiver, which allows you to access Verizon FiOS TV’s HD programming. Or you could choose the SD Receiver as an option as well.

You can also view over 14,000 movies every month with the On Demand Options. If you are tired of watching the same old boring TV stations that you see over and over, the On Demand will allow you to watch movies 24/7 if you choose to.

When it comes to the installation, you are treated with the utmost respect and the skilled technicians will be more than happy to set up your entire home and they will not leave until you are completely satisfied. They will explain the process of the installations and everything that you get with it, all for no extra charge.

Verizon FiOS TV gives you several convenient plans, plus you can customize a package to meet your desire. If you prefer, or are unsure what sort of programming you want, you can start with the basic package and customize it at any time in the future. The bundled package include the Verizon FiOS Triple Play and Double Play where you package more than 1 service up to get a better discount. These FiOS packages are most popular because of the maximum savings you will achieve!

Why wait to have the greatest TV set in town, join the rest of the Verizon FiOS community. You can be the talk of your town with your big screen TV and FiOS – which make a great combo. Get the thrill of your life. You will be glad you did. Check to see if you can get Verizon FiOS in your area right now.

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Direct TV and HD – What’s The Story?

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So, you want to get into the HD scene and don’t know where to start? First, you’ll need to make sure you have an “HD-ready” television set to go with the service, that way you’ll actually be able to see the beautiful views and awesome sounds that HDTV will provide you with. You’ll most likely have to check your TV’s manual to find out if it supports 720p, 1080i, or 1080p, 720p and 1080i are the same, but most TV makers put 1080i to attempt to fool you, so watch out for that.

Now, you’ll need to decide which TV service you would like, Direct TV, Dish TV, or cable. With cable, you’ll get about 55 HD channels depending on which cable provider, with satellite TV, you’ll get 73 HD channels, and with Direct TV, you’ll receive 92 of your favorite HD channels, whereas with cable and Dish TV, nearly half of the HD channels you’ll be getting will be ones you’ve probably never heard of and if you have they are ones that you want and feel you need for the total HD experience.

For example, have you ever heard of Treasure HD, or Equator HD? No, no one has, and no one watches those channels either, so in fact, many people are paying extra for tons of channels that they have never heard of and will never watch. With Direct TV, you’ll be getting all the HD movies you could ever want with channels like Universal HD, Sony, Warner Brothers, and the traditional movie channels in HD, such as HBO and Starz. Direct TV also offers local High-Def channels, unlike what the cable companies would like to tell you on their commercials and DirecTV adds more HD programs all the time so there is little worry of tiring of these movie stations. Direct TV offers as many local HD channels as cable does, such as ABC, NBC, CBS, and Fox. Of course, like cable, the availability depends on the region.

As with cable, you will also have to get a separate receiver for your HD channels with HDTV Direct TV. The basic HD Receiver for Direct TV will give you 1080i (720p) picture, while the Plus version will give you the full 1080p picture that is truly worth showing off on your new flatscreen. You’ll only pay a one-time fee, though, for most Direct TV boxes, while with Cable ones, you have to pay so much per month.

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Media Influence – The Effects Media Has on Each of Us – Without Us Being Aware of That

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Many people do not realise how much media affects us in our daily lives. We are literally controlled by media: it determines the way we dress, what we eat and what lifestyle we pursue. Many people spend hours just flicking through channels till their bedtime.

Although we may not realise, it is media that makes us feel the way we feel, which is usually depressed, having no purpose in life and just feeling sad. The more you watch TV or listen to radio news, the more disasters you will hear, e.g. that someone was killed in your neighbourhood or that times are hard. Media forms the way we think and we let the media do this.

From my personal experience I can tell you that I have not watched TV for two years now. As soon as I stopped watching it, I instantly became happier. Instead of watching TV or flicking through newspapers I spent my time reading about how to acquire wealth, how to be healthy and positive. The absence of the influential media changed my life. I became a different person – I stopped gossiping, judging people, I became much more positive and happy. To tell you the truth, I did not have a bad day since I stopped being involved in the media.

But then many would argue that it is impossible to disengage from media as we would be not updated on current situation etc. But I would rather CHOOSE what I wish to be updated on by using on-line search engines, rather than just turn on the TV only to be bombarded by the depressing information.

Why do we always hear more negative than positive information on TV? Why do we feel sad, angry and insecure after watching news? Sometimes I think that society is kept in fear by such ways. Then common people are discouraged to achieve more, to start their own business because the media tells them that now the economic situation is disastrous and many businesses fail. I think it is ridiculous when people take everything that is told for granted.

The way many people live can be summed up in a few sentences: they work for someone else, they go home, eat, watch TV and sleep. Then on weekends they go shopping for cheap stuff to spend all their money in useless ways only to find themselves in debt after a few days of getting salaries. Then they go on vacation for a week or two once a year.

That is not life. That is a horrible loop they are stuck in. To break away from such life means to change habits. Change the habit of listening to media to doing something useful in that time. Reading is always good. Reading how to acquire wealth was my favourite pastime.

If yo do not like to read, buy educational tapes or DVDs, attend seminars. These are interactive and very useful ways to acquire knowledge and change your life. When you stop listening to the media, you will find yourself happier, healthier and wealthier. You will travel much more often, meet interesting people, maybe even start a new relationship. Things will change – I will guarantee you this. Get rid of this negative influence and you will change your life for good.

Do not hesitate to email me with your feedback on my articles! Thank you for taking time to read this post.

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